GDP is the entire value of goods and services produced inside a nation’s borders over a given time frame, sometimes a year. The rate of GDP growth is a key metric for measuring a nation’s economic performance.
There are three ways to quantify it:
1. Output Technique
This statistic is used to estimate the value in money or the market of all goods and services produced inside a nation’s borders. To avoid a misleading estimate of GDP as a result of price level fluctuations, real GDP, or GDP at constant prices, is computed. Real GDP (GDP at constant prices) less taxes and subsidies = GDP (as measured by output).
2. Method of Expenditure:
Using this method, the total amount spent on goods and services by all entities located within a nation’s domestic borders is determined. GDP = C + I + G + (expenditures as a proxy for GDP) (X-IM) Consumption spending is denoted by the letter C, investment spending is denoted by the letter I, government spending is denoted by the letter G, and net exports, or (X-IM), is denoted by the letter I.
3. Earnings Method:
It is used to calculate the total income generated within a nation’s domestic boundaries by the two main production forces, labour and capital. GDP at factor cost plus taxes minus subsidies equals GDP (as determined by the income approach).
The three major sectors that contribute the most to India’s GDP are services, industry, and agriculture and related services. In India, the 2011–12 fiscal year serves as the base year and market prices are used to calculate GDP. Indirect Taxes – Subsidies + GDP at cost of production = GDP at market prices